In a prospective Phase II open-labeled clinical trial performed by Dr. Jill Smith and her colleagues at the Pennsylvania State University School of Medicine in Hershey, PA, patients with very advanced pancreatic cancer were treated. These patients had failed prior chemotherapy regimens and were either treated with MENK or were entered into a hospice program. Clinical benefits were experienced by 53% of MENK-treated patients, whereas historical controls with similarly advanced disease had only 23.8% and 4.8% for gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), respectively. Of the MENK-treated patients surviving more than eight weeks, 62% showed either a decrease or stabilization in tumor size by computed tomography. The median survival time for the OGF-treated patients was three times that of the untreated hospice patients (65.5 versus 21 days, p < 0.001). No adverse effects on hematologic or chemistry parameters were noted, and quality of life surveys suggested improvement with MENK.